There are different rumors about the era to start the archaic history of the Greece. Some people say that it comprises an era of 750-480 B.C. while others claim to be the 620-480 B.C. but the most common period is from 800-323 B.C. This time was started preceding the unenlightening Dark Ages in the history of Greece which brought a solid and firm belief of the mythology, religion and founding history. The period of the Dark Ages started with the collapse of end of Mycenaean civilization, then the people of Greece were scattered and began living in small tribes. Only some of the tribes resided permanently in a single place in the villages and adopted the agriculture but others lived their life like the nomads. However the small tribes started to make strong city states as their political centers. Cities like the coast of Asia Minor and the peninsula present in the Greek mainland had close interaction with one another, but they established their own unique culture and a strong political structure. They were also the founders of the word politics and their main focus was education. They developed the markets in the villages and the trade market began to flourish. They also started to form the defensive units for their protection and fortification. Then started the archaic times during which the advancements in political theories were brought out and the democracy was initiated. They moved beyond political history to incorporate social sections on women, religion and slaves. So, this brought an exclusive offer and achievement to the extensive coverage of the social and religious environment. During this period, the development of culture and art specifically the style of sculpture and pottery were also started. It initiated some special characters and features in a naturalistic style of the Classical periods. As the development in education sector started, the knowledge and the use of written language initiated again in the community and progressed very fast.
The archaic times of Greece were followed by the classical period. During this period most of the monarchies were overthrown and these were substituted by the political arrangements. Oligarchy was the most common system of rule which means rule by a few and the powers in this system were notably authoritarian. By this system, the management to rule the government was chosen among the wealthiest citizens of the state. They had almost the same powers as the monarch but in distributed form among the different people. When the city or state went under crises and the government became unable to control the city, tyrannies occupied the government with the help of people. Sometimes the tyrannies also managed to overthrow the remaining kings. Only some of the tyrannies ruled successfully but the most were disapproved as the form of government was unstable. So after a time when they lose their popularity among the people, their act of rule was a bit similar to the dictatorship, by maintaining the control through armies and keeping the people in fear. Despite the widespread political arrangement, they ruled only for a short period of time as the ancient Greece democracy started in the sixth century. Although, this type of democracy was different from the present day’s democracy. The cities were represented by only the male citizens excluding the slaves, foreigners and the females and not the government. This form of rule was also similar to the oligarchy with a little difference of increase in a group of people. So this complicated system of politics needed complex set of laws to keep the social structure organized. So the advanced legalities imposed the equalities in all aspects between the citizens even with differences in economic statuses. The rules and regulations were ensured the same for each social class. So, the system of equalities for everyone played a great role in the progress of ancient Greece. This system with some amendments also puts the base for the existing democracy.
The Greece progress of archaic times is the worth in all the aspects but it also had some drawbacks. The states were rich in business, trade and marketplaces but the corruption was also at its peak. Rather than the profit, exchange was very essential to fulfill the needs for family, friends and the community. The ideal condition for a family was considered to be the self sufficient on the farms. As the population of Greece increased, there was a need to look abroad for a place to settle which put the base of frenetic colonization. People started to settle down in different places and countries across the Mediterranean including the coast of Asia Minor, southern Italy and Spain when they traveled for the trade. They were also supported through the cultural exchange to make the colonies but these were independent unlike the British colonies controlled by the mother nation. The statues present in the beginning of the archaic period were immobile and rigid like the Egyptian but at the end they looked lifelike and humans. The people of Greece are well known for their historic progress in the field of science and mathematics. They introduced the basin rules of geometry, applied mathematics, mathematical analysis and the number theory. They also have a great command in the field of astronomy and made the first astronomical computer to calculate the movement of planets. They proposed the ideas of a heliocentric system with only the fragmentary description and the rotation of earth around its excel. They were famous for their work in the medical field and invented many medicines for the chronic diseases. Hippocrates, the father of medicine was also from the ancient Greece. Greece also made progress in many other fields like literature, theater, information technology, art, architecture and the philosophy in the archaic times.